Retrieval of Document Images


Introduction

Large collections of paper-based documents and books are being brought to the digital domain, through the efforts of various digitisation projects. The Digital Library of India initiative has scanned and archived more than a Million books. The automatic transcription of document images using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is handicapped by the poor accuracy of OCRs, especially for Indian, African and oriental languages. Consequently, retrieval from document image collections is a challenging task.

Our approach towards retrieval of document images, avoids explicit recognition of the text. Instead, we perform word matching in the image space. Given a query word, we generate its corresponding word image, and compare it against the words in the documents. Documents that contain similar-looking words to the query, are retrieved for the user. This enables the user to search and retrieve from document images, using text queries.


Indexing Word Images

millionblockMatching words in the image space should handle the many variations in font size, font type, style, noise, degradations etc. that are present in document images. The features and the matching technique were carefully designed to handle this variety. Further, morphological word variations, such as prefix and suffixes for a given stem word, are identified using an innovative partial matching scheme. We use Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based matching algorithm which enables us to efficiently exploit the information supplied by local features, that scans vertical strips of the word images.

This matching scheme is used to build an index for the documents. Word images are matched and clustered, such that a cluster contains all instances of a given word from all document images. These clusters allow us to build an indexing scheme for the document images. The index is built in the image space. Each entry in the index corresponds to the various words in the documents, while the index points to the documents that contain the given word. The documents are ranked using the term frequency inverse document frequency, TF/IDF measure. Given a query word, its word image is rendered and matched against the word images in the index. The index term that matches is used to immediately retireve all documents that contain the given query word.

This scheme was successfully demonstrated on tens of books. The search system is able to efficiently and quickly retrieve from document images, given a textual query. The system allows for cross-lingual search using transliteration and dictionary based translation. The system is available here . Popular search queries include arjuna, devotion, said, poolan, etc.


Word Annotation for Search

pramodblockOnline matching of a query word against a search index is a computationally intensive process and thus time consuming. This can be avoided by performing annotation of the word images. Annotation assigns a corresponding text word to each word image. This enables further processing, such as indexing and retrieval, to occur in the text domain. Search and retireval in text domain allows us to build search systems which have interactive response times.

Automatic annotation of word images is performed by the following procedure

  • Cluster Word images from documents, as similar to indexing
  • Generate labeled keyword images, by rendering from text
  • Cluster keyword images, using the techniques used for word images
  • Form associations between clusters of word images and keyword images
  • Annotate each word image with the most similar keyword to each word image

The annotation procedure is a one time offline computation, that results in a text equivalent for documents. A text based search system was built over the annotated documents. We have built a search system for 500 books in the Telugu language, which retrieves documents in real time. The procedure is scalable to large collections, while the retrieval time is unchanged.


Hashing of Word Images

anandblockIn databases, hashing of data is considered an efficient alternative to indexing (and clustering). In hashing, a single function value is computed for each word image. The words that have same (or similar) hash values are placed in the same bin. Effectively, the words with similar hash values are clustered together. With such a scheme, indexing search and retrieval of documents is linear in time complexity, which is a significant prospect.

We are building hash functions such that similar word images are mapped to same hash value. The features extracted from word images are used to hash using Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). With LSH, we ensure that for each function, the probability of collision is much higher for words which are close to each other than for those which are far apart. In the first stage, the images are hashed to a temporary hash table using randomly generated hash functions. These hash functions may hash different words into same index. To minimize such errors in hashing, we use the second level of hash function, which are learnable from ground truth data. When a query is given, the primary hash functions are applied to identify the first level hash value. The learned hash functions are then applied to rehash the image to another hash table. From the final hash table a linear search is done to retrieve the relevant word images. Thus the linear searching time is changed to sublinear with the use of locality sensitive hashing.


Related Publications

  • Million Meshesha and C. V. Jawahar - Matching word image for content-based retrieval from printed document images Proceeding of the International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, IJDAR 11(1), 29-38, 2008. [PDF]

  • Pramod Sankar K. and C.V. Jawahar - Enabling Search over Large Collections of Telugu Document Images-An Automatic Annotation Based Approach , 5th Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, Madurai, India, LNCS 4338 pp.837-848, 2006. [PDF]

  • Pramod Sankar K., Million Meshesha and C. V. Jawahar - Annotation of Images and videos based on Textual Content without OCR, Workshop on Computation Intensive Methods for Computer Vision(in conjuction with ECCV 2006), 2006. [PDF]

  • A. Balasubramanian, Million Meshesha and C. V. Jawahar - Retrieval from Document Image Collections, Proceedings of Seventh IAPR Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, 2006 (LNCS 3872), pp 1-12. [PDF]

  • C. V. Jawahar, Million Meshesha and A. Balasubramanian, Searching in Document Images, Proceedings of the Indian Conference on Vision, Graphics and Image Processing(ICVGIP), Dec. 2004, Calcutta, India, pp. 622--627. [PDF]

 


Associated People

  • Million Meshesha
  • Balasubramanian Anand
  • Pramod Sankar K.
  • Anand Kumar
  • Dr. C. V. Jawahar

Exploiting SfM Data from Community Collections


Introduction

On public photo sharing sites such as flickr, millions of photographs of monuments are easily available. These are popularly known as community photo collections. Progress in the field of 3D Computer Vision has led to the development of robust SfM (Structure from Motion) algorithms. These SfM algorithms, allow us to build 3D models of the monuments using community photo collections. In this domain of SfM algorithms, we work on improving their speed and accuracy. We have also developed tools which exploit the rich geometry information present in the SfM datasets. This geometry allows us to perform fast image localization, feature triangulation and visualization of user photographs.


Projects involving GPU's and CUDA

1. Visibility Probability Structure from SfM Datasets

VisProbStruct

Large scale reconstructions of camera matrices and point clouds have been created using structure from motion from community photo collections. Such a dataset is rich in information; it represents a sampling of the geometry and appearance of the underlying space. In this work, we encode the visibility information between and among points and cameras as visibility probabilities. We combine this visibility probability structure with a distance measure to prioritize points for fast guided search for the image localization problem. We also define the dual problem of feature triangulation as finding the 3D coordinates of a given image feature and solve it efficiently, again using the visibility probability structure.

GdbBrowser

2. Geometry Directed Photo-Browsing for Personal Photos

Browsers of personal digital photographs all essentially follow the slide show paradigm, sequencing through the photos in the order they are taken. A more engaging way to browse personal photographs, especially of a large space like a popular monument, should involve the geometric context of the space. In this work, we develop a geometry directed photo browser that enables users to browse their personal pictures with the underlying geometry of the space to guide the process. We believe personal photo browsers can provide an enhanced sense of one's own experience with a monument using the underlying 3D-geometric context of the monument.

3. Bundle Adjustment on GPU

Large-scale 3D reconstruction has received a lot of attention recently. Bundle adjustment is a key component of the reconstruction pipeline and often its slowest and most computational resource intensive. Its parallel implementations are rare. In this work, we developed a hybrid implementation of sparse bundle adjustment on the GPU using CUDA, with the CPU working in parallel. The algorithm is decomposed into smaller steps, each of which is scheduled on the GPU or the CPU. We developed efficient kernels for the steps and made use of existing libraries for additional performance. Our implementation outperforms the CPU implementation significantly, achieving a speedup of 30-40 times over the standard CPU implementation for datasets with upto 500 images on an Nvidia Tesla C2050 GPU.


Related Publications

  • Aditya Deshpande, Siddharth Choudhary, P J Narayanan , Krishna Kumar Singh, Kaustav Kundu, Aditya Singh, Apurva Kumar - Geometry Directed Browser for Personal Photographs Proceedings of the 8th Indian Conference on Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, 16-19 Dec. 2012, Bombay, India. [PDF]

  • Siddharth Choudhary and P J Narayanan - Visibility Probability Structure from SfM Datasets and Applications Proceedings of 12th European Conference on Computer Vision, 7-13 Oct. 2012, Vol. ECCV 2012, Part-VI, LNCS 7577, Firenze, Italy. [PDF]

  • Siddharth Choudhary, Shubham Gupta and P. J. Narayanan - Practical Time Bundle Adjustment for 3D Reconstruction on GPU Proceedings of ECCV Workshop on Computer Vision on GPU (CVGPU'10),5-11 Sep. 2010, Crete, Greece. [PDF]

 


Associated People

  • Aditya Singh
  • Kaustav Kundu
  • Shubham Gupta
  • Apurva Kumar
  • Rajvi Shah
  • Siddharth Choudhary
  • Krishna Kumar Singh
  • Aditya Deshpande
  • Prof. P J Narayanan

Recognition of Indian Language Documents


Introduction

The present growth of digitization of documents demands an immediate solution to enable the archived valuable materials searchable and usable by users in order to achieve its objective. In response, active research has been going on in similar direction to make access to digital documents imminent through indexing and retrieval of relevant documents.

A direct solution to this problem is the use of character recognition systems to convert document images into text followed by the use of existing text search engines to make them available for the public at large via the Internet. Significant advancement is made in the recognition of documents written in Latin-based scripts. There are many excellent attempts in building robust document analysis systems in industry, academia and research institutions. Intelligent recognition systems are commercially available for use for some scripts. On the contrary, there is only limited research effort made for the recognition of African, Indian and other oriental languages. In addition diversity and complexity of documents archived in digital libraries complicate the problem of document analysis and understanding to a great extent. Machine learning offers one of the most cost effective and practical approaches to the design of pattern classifiers for such documents. Mechanisms such as relevance feedback and feature selection are used to facilitate adaptation to new situations, and to improve its performance accordingly. Deviating from the conventional OCR design, we explore the prospect of designing character recognition systems for large collection of document images.


Problems with existing OCRs

Digitized documents are extremely poor in quality, varying in scripts, fonts, sizes and styles. Besides, document images in digital libraries are from diverse languages and hence vary in scripts. Accessing from these complex collection of document images is a challenging task, specially when there is no textual representation available. Though there are many excellent research works in developing robust OCR systems, most of these research in the area of character recognition has been centered around developing fully automatic systems with high performance classifiers. The recognizers were trained offline and used online without any feedback. However the diversity of document collections (language-wise, quality-wise, time-wise, etc.) reduce the performance of the system greatly. Hence, building an omnifont OCR that can convert all these documents into text does not look imminent. The system fails mostly to scale to the expected level of performance when a new font and poor quality documents are presented. Therefore most of the documents in digital libraries are not accessible by their content.


Challenges in OCR for Indic Scripts

High accuracy OCR systems are reported for English with excellent performance in presence of printing variations and document degradation. For Indian and many other oriental languages,OCR systems are not yet able to successfully recognise printed document images of varying scripts, quality, size, style and font. compared to European languages, Indian languages pose many additional challenges. Some of them are (i) Large number of vowels, consonants, and conjuncts, (ii) Most scripts spread over several zones, (iii) inflectional in nature and having complex character grapheme, (iv) lack of statistical analysis of most popular fonts and/or databases, (v) lack of standard test databases (ground truth data) of the Indian languages, Also issues like, (i) lack of standard representation for the fonts and encoding, (ii) lack of support from operating system, browsers and keyboard, and (iii) lack of language processing routines, add to the complexity of the design and implementation of a document image retrieval system.


Character Recognition systems

We have an OCR system that is setup for the recognition of Indian and Amharic documents. It has many functionalities including preprocessing, character segmentation, feature extraction, classification and post-processing modules.

structure


Classifier design and feature selection for large class systems :-

The system accepts either already scanned documents or scans document pages from a flat-bed scanner. Scanned pages are preprocessed (binarized, skew corrected and noise removed) and segmented into character components. Then features are extracted for classification using dimensionality reduction scheme like Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA-based features enable us to manage the large number characters available in the script. These features are used for training the DDAG-based SVM classifier for classification. Finally characters are recognized and a post-processor is used to correct miss-classified once. Results of the OCR are converted texts that can be employed for retrieval tasks.

The performance of the OCR needs to be improved so that it can perform well on real-life documents such as books, magazines, newspapers, etc. To this end, we are working towards an intelligent OCR system that learns from its experience.

architectureAnnotated Corpora and Test Suite

Large annotated corpora is critical to the development of robust optical character recognizers (OCRs). we propose an efficient hierarchical approach for annotation of large collection of printed document images. The method is model-driven and is designed to annotate 50M characters from 40,000 documents scanned at three different resolutions. We employ an XML representation for storage of the annotation information. APIs are provided for access at content level for easy use in training and evaluation of OCRs and other document understanding tasks.

Document image annotation is carried out in a hierarchy of levels.
Block Level Annotation: In block level annotation, the document image is segmented into blocks of text paragraphs, tables, pictures and graphs.
Line level annotation is done by labeling the lines from paragraph of the document image with their corresponding extracted text lines. Line images are labeled by parallel alignment with the text lines.
Akshara annotation is the process of mapping a sequence of connected components from the word image to the corresponding text akshara. Image of akshara text is rendered for matching with components of the word image.


Machine Learning in OCR Systems

Adaptable OCR System (DAS) :-

architecture

We presents a novel approach for designing a semi-automatic adaptive OCR for large document image collections in digital libraries. We describe an interactive system for continuous improvement of the results of the OCR. In this paper a semi-automatic and adaptive system is implemented. Applicability of our design for the recognition of Indian Languages is demonstrated. Recognition errors are used to train the OCR again so that it adapts and learns for improving its accuracy. Limited human intervention is allowed for evaluating the output of the system and take corrective actions during the recognition process.

We design the general architecture of an interactivemultilingual OCR (IMOCR) system that is open for learning and adaptation. An overviewof the architecture of the system is shown in Figure. The IMOCR design is based on a multi-core approach. At the heart of the same is an application tier, which acts as the interface between the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the OCR modules. This application layer identifies the user-made choices, initialises data and document structures and invokes relevant modules with suitable parameters. The GUI layer provides the user with the tools to configure the data-flow, select the plug-ins and supply initialization parameters. The system provides appropriate performance metrics in the form of graphs and tables for better visualization of the results of each step and module during the recognition process.

The last layer is the module/algorithm layer where the actual OCR operations are done. This layer is segmented based on clearly identified functionality. Each module implements a standard interface to be invoked via the application. Each module internally can decide on multiple algorithm implementations of the same functionality that may be interchanged at run-time. This helps in selection and use of an appropriate algorithm or a set of parameters for a book, collection or script. This layer is designed on the principle of plug-ins. The system allows transparent runtime addition and selection of modules (as shared objects/ dynamic libraries) thereby enabling the decoupling of the application and the plug-ins. Feature addition and deployment is as simple as copying the plug-in to the appropriate directory. The other advantages of this approach are lower size of application binary, lower runtime memory footprint and effective memory management (through dynamic loading and unloading, caching etc.).

Book OCR :-

bookocrTo alleviate such problems there is a need to build new generation document analysis systems; systems that are intelligent enough to learn and adjust themselves to the new documents that vary in quality, fonts, styles and sizes. The development of such systems should aim at learning not through explicit training, but through feedback at normal operation. Such systems are expected to register an acceptable accuracy rate so as to facilitate effective access to relevant documents from these large collection of document images.

To this end, we propose a new approach towards the recognition of large collection of text images using an interactive (adaptive) learning system. In this project we show for the first time an OCR system that learns from its mistakes and improves its performance continuously across a large collection of document images through feedback mechanism. The strategy of designing this system is with the aim of enabling the OCR learn on-the-fly using knowledge derived from an input sequence of word images. The resulting system is expected to learn the characteristics of symbol shape, context, and noise that are present in a collection of images in the corpus, and thus should be able to generalize and achieve higher accuracy across diverse documents.

This system enables us to build a generic OCR that has a minimal core, and leaves most of the sophisticated tuning to on-line learning. This can be a recurrent process involving frequent feedback and backtracking. Such a strategy is valuable to handle, in a situation like ours where there is a huge collection of degraded documents in different languages and there are human operators working on OCRing the scanned books. We integrate a number of modules to realize the learning framework. A post-processor based feedback mechanism is enabled to identify and pass recognition errors as new training datasets. The quality of the new training samples are controlled using validation techniques in the image-space. We propose incremental learning approach to enhance the efficiency of training the classifier on-line during normal operation. Sampling is done to make sure that each time new datasets are fed for training the classifier and appropriate features are selected at each node of the DDAG for pair-wise classification.

To suit Learn OCR there is a need to design intelligent postprocessor. At present we are investigating language modeling techniques in image space. Sample data is being generated by Learn OCR through feedback. There is a need to systematically use these data for performance improvement. We are also working towards the application of learning framework for labeling the unlabeled data.


Algorithms for Document Understanding

Segmentation :

The problem of document segmentation is that of dividing a document image (I) into a hierarchy of meaningful regions like paragraphs, text lines, words, image regions, etc. These regions are associated with a homogeneity property Φ( . ) and the segmentation algorithms are parameterized by θ . Conventionally, segmentation has been viewed as a deterministic partitioning scheme characterized by the parameter θ. The challenge has been in finding an optimal set of values for θ, to segment the input Image I into appropriate regions. In our formulation, the parameter vector θ is learned based on the feedback calculated in the form a homogeneity measure Φ( . ) (a model based metric to represent the distance from ideal segmentation). The feedback is propagated upwards in the hierarchy to improve the performance of each level above, estimating the new values of the parameters to improve the overall performance of the system. Hence the values of θ are learned based on the feedback from present and lower levels of the system. In order to improve the performance of an algorithm over time using multiple examples or by processing an image multiple times, the algorithm is given appropriate feedback in the form of homogeneity measure of the segmented regions. Feedback mechanisms for learning the parameters could be employed at various levels.

Perspective Correction for Camera based Document Analysis :

We demonestrate intelligent use of commonly available clues for rectification of docment images for camera-based analysis and recognition. Camear-based imaging has many challenges such as projection distortion, uneven lighting and lens distortion.

There are different rectification techniques. One is the deterimination of document image boundaries using aspect ratio of the documents, and parallel and perpendicular lines. If the original aspect ratio of the rectangle is known, the vertices of the quadrilaterals could be used to obtain the homography between an arbitrary view to the frontal view. The other is the use of page layout and structural information. We can extract information like text and graphics block present in the image, repetitive or apriori known structure of cells in tables. Finally, content specific rectification using the properties of text (or the content of the image itself). For example, sirorekha can be used for text written in Devanagari and Bangla in estimating the vanishing point


Related Publications

  • K.S.Sesh Kumar, Anoop M. Namboodiri and C. V. Jawahar - Learning Segmentation of Documents with Complex Scripts, 5th Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, Madurai, India LNCS 4338 pp.749-760, 2006. [PDF]

  • Sachin Rawat, K. S. Sesh Kumar, Million Meshesha, Indineel Deb Sikdar, A. Balasubramanian and C. V. Jawahar - A Semi-Automatic Adaptive OCR for Digital Libraries, Proceedings of Seventh IAPR Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, 2006 (LNCS 3872), pp 13-24. [PDF]

  • M. N. S. S. K. Pavan Kumar and C. V. Jawahar, Design of Hierarchical Classifier with Hybrid Architectures, Proceedings of First International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence(PReMI 2005) Kolkata, India. December 2005, pp 276-279. [PDF]

  • Million Meshesha and C. V. Jawahar  - Recognition of Printed Amharic Documents, Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition(ICDAR), Seoul, Korea 2005, Vol 1, pp 784-788. [PDF]

  • M. N. S. S. K. Pavan Kumar and C. V. Jawahar, Configurable Hybrid Architectures for Character Recognition Applications, Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition(ICDAR), Seoul, Korea 2005, Vol 1, pp 1199-1203. [PDF]

  • C. V. Jawahar, MNSSK Pavan Kumar and S. S. Ravikiran - A Bilingual OCR system for Hindi-Telugu Documents and its Applications, Proceedings of the International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition(ICDAR) Aug. 2003, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 408--413. [PDF]

 


Associated People

  • Million Meshesha
  • Balasubramanian Anand
  • Sesh Kumar.
  • L. Jagannathan
  • Neeba N V
  • Venkat Rasagna
  • Dr. C. V. Jawahar

 

Data Generation Toolkit for CV and IBR


Introduction

Synthetic data is very useful for validating the algorithms developed for various computer vision and image based rendering algorithms. Since all the information about the scene is available in the case of synthetic data, the researchers can easily compare the results achieved by their algorithm to the ideal values to be generated. High resolution real world data can be acquired from the natural scenes, but the accuracy of the data is generally not very high dude to physical limitations of the imaging devices. These are the main reasons for the popularity of the synthetic data in these fields (CV and IBR).

Algorithms which require just the image and no other information can use some of the standard 3D authoring tools for creating complex scenes which mimic the real world scenes. But most of the CV and IBR algorithms require additional information about the scene (for example depth maps, segmentation, alpha matte, etc). The standard 3D authoring tools do not provide enough flexibility for the users to generate their own representations. This is because most of the popular 3D authoring tools are complex, commercial and closed source softwares. Extending such tools with just the plug-in architecture supported by these softwares may not be intuitive. A simple open source tool which can provide a simple UI for generating various representations is desirable to the research community.


Features & Representations

screen

We aim at providing a tool which will enable researchers to generate data sets on their own with ease. The following are some of the key features of our system::

  • An interface which is similar to standard 3D authoring tools.
  • Import facility for using available 3D models.
  • Information about the Resolution at which the image is being rendered.
  • Simple click and drag interface for creating complex scenes.
  • A key frame interface for creating dynamic scenes with various moving, rotating objects.
  • Very intuitive interface for generating high resolution images.

representationsThe basic objective of DGTk is to enable generation of complex representations that are required by CV and IBR algorithms with ease. Our tool provides a very simple intuitive interface for generating the following representations of a scene created in our tool::

  • Point correspondences for points in different camera views.
  • Camera calibration information for all the cameras in the scene. This is provided in terms of K[R|t] matrices in a text file.
  • Layer Depth Images (LDI), this representation was first proposed and used by Shade et al.
  • Depth-maps or the depth information as percieved by the camera.
  • Object-maps, each pixel in the image is assigned R,G,B values based on the unique id of the object it correspond to.
  • Alpha-maps or the alpha matte information of each object in the scene.

Please visit our project page for downloading the tool and some example data sets.


Related Publications

  • Vamsikrishna and P.J. Narayanan - Data Generation Toolkit for Image Based Rendering Algorithms , The 3rd International Conference on Visual Information Engineering 26-28 September 2006 in Bangalore, India. [PDF]


Associated People

Terrain Processing


Introduction

Digital Terrain Model refer to a data model that attempts to provide a three dimensional representation of a continuous surface, since terrains are two and a half dimensional rather than three dimensional. Terrains are basic models which come into picture in most of the games, animations and other multimedia and visualization application.

Terrain Geometry can also be stored remotely and recieved progressively when needed and rendered on the fly. Serving and streaming of Terrains can be beneficial and difficult. Dynamic environments such as those used for battlefield visualization involving real terrains and multiple players is an example. Geometry servers are useful to control the level of access of sensitive virtual environments. Thus, remote access of geometry is an interesting mix of data serving and content streaming.


Streaming & Renderingterrainintro

We aim at rendering rich terrains efficiently. Some of the features of the system are ::

  • Seamless and fast display of terrains integrating several levels of detail.
  • Real Time editing of Annotations and addition of Dynamic Entities on the terrain.
  • Smooth blending of heights over discrete Level of Detail is done to avoid popping of terrain.
  • User can record a walkthrough and play it as a demo later.
  • View Frustum Culling with Tiles as the basic entity reduces the data to be rendered.
  • The stereo modes supported are Anaglyphic, Polarization based Stereo and Shutter Glass Stereo.
  • Motion of objects like balls and mercury droplets is simulated.

terrainstreamingThe basic objective of a geometry server is to provide each client with data appropriate to it as quickly as possible. Main features of the streaming system developed are ::

  • A transparent streaming system which treats remote and local objects without distinction.
  • The client module performs caching and predictions needed for better performance and interface with the server.
  • A suitable level of detail is sent to each client based on capabilities of rendering hardware.
  • Support for Dynamic Objects and local modification.
  • Changes to an existing model in the virtual environment are notified to all clients possesing the same.
  • The system uses a combination of visibility culling, clientside caching, speculative prefetching, motion prediction and deep compression to achieve performance similar akin to local rendering.

 


Related Publication

  • Soumyjit Deb, P.J. Naryanan and Shiben Bhattacharjee - Streaming Terrain Rendering , The 33rd International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, Boston, Massachusetts USA, 30 July - 3 August, 2006. [PDF]

  • Soumyajit Deb, Shiben Bhattacharjee, Suryakant Patidar and P. J. Narayanan - Real-time Streaming and Rendering of Terrains, 5th Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, Madurai, India, LNCS 4338 pp.276-288, 2006. [PDF]

  • Soumyajit Deb and P. J. Narayanan, Design of a Geometry Streaming System, Proceedings of the Indian Conference on Vision, Graphics and Image Processing(ICVGIP), Dec. 2004, Calcutta, India, pp. 296--301. [PDF]


Associated People

Shiben Bhattacharjee
Suryakant Patidar
Soumyajit Deb
Prof. P. J. Narayanan