Towards Generalization in Multi-View Pedestrian Detection
Detecting humans in images and videos has emerged as an essential aspect of intelligent video systems that solve pedestrian detection, tracking, crowd counting, etc. It has many real-life applications varying from visual surveillance and sports to autonomous driving. Despite achieving high performance, the single camera-based detection methods are susceptible to occlusions caused by humans, which drastically degrades the performance where crowd density is very high. Therefore multi-camera setup becomes necessary, which incorporates multiple camera views for detections by computing precise 3D locations that can be visualized and transformed to Top View also termed as Bird’s Eye View (BEV) representation and thus permits better occlusion reasoning in crowded scenes. The thesis, therefore, presents a multi-camera approach that globally aggregates the multi-view cues for detection and alleviates the impact of occlusions in a crowded environment. But it was still primarily unknown how satisfactorily the multi-view detectors generalize to unseen data. In different camera setups, this becomes critical because a practical multi-view detector should be usable in scenarios such as i) when the model trained with few camera views is deployed, and one of the cameras fails during testing/inference or when we add more camera views to the existing setup, ii) when we change the camera positions in the same environment and finally iii) when deploying the system on the unseen environment; an ideal multi-camera setup system should be adaptable to such changing conditions. While recent works using deep learning have made significant advances in the field, they have overlooked the generalization aspect, which makes them impractical for real-world deployment. We formalized three critical forms of generalization and outlined the experiments to evaluate them: generalization with i) a varying number of cameras, ii) varying camera positions, and finally, iii) to new scenes. We discover that existing state-of-the-art models show poor generalization by overfitting to a single scene and camera configuration. To address the concerns: (a) we generated a novel Generalized MVD (GMVD) dataset, assimilating diverse scenes with changing daytime, camera configurations, varying number of cameras, and (b) we discuss the properties essential to bring generalization to MVD and developed a barebones model to incorporate them. We performed a series of experiments on the WildTrack, MultiViewX, and the GMVD datasets to motivate the necessity to evaluate the generalization abilities of MVD methods and to demonstrate the efficacy of the developed approach.
|Year of completion:||April 2023|
|Advisor :||Vineet Gandhi|